10:1 The disciples are given leave to drive out unclean spirits and the treat every illness, but they are not yet commissioned to teach. This will only come after Jesus' Resurrection.
10:2-4 This is the only time in Matthew that the Twelve are designated as 'apostles.' Apostle means "one who is sent." Prior to this, they were disciples. And later others will be sent as disciples. But these 12 are apostles, with special designation from Jesus.
10:2 'James, the son of Zebedee,' called James the greater, was put to death by Herod. He was brother to John the Evangelist. The other James was called the less, also James of Alpheus, and the brother of the Lord, bishop of Jerusalem, martyred there about the year 61. (Haydock)
10:3 Thaddaeus is mentioned only twice in Scripture, here and in Mk 3:18, both lists of the apostles. In the other two lists of the apostles (Lk 6:16 and Ac 1:13), only 11 are listed. (Gordon-Conwell).
10:4 'Simon the Cananean': Cananean means "zealot" but the meaning of the designation is unclear. Could simply reference his religious zeal -or- his official membership in the party of the Zealots.
10:5 See Bible study for this section on more explanation of why Jesus' instructions here excluded preaching to the Gentiles.
10:14 'Shake the dust from your feet': this gesture indications a complete disassociation from such unbelievers. The early church took the instructions given directly by Jesus here (and in Mark 6:6b-13) as a checklist/rules for missionaries and how to act with "those whose hospitality they sought" (Brown et al., p.609).
10:17 Jesus begins to speak of the persecutions that the apostles will undergo following his death & resurrection.
10:20 "the spirit of your father: In contrast to the Lucan parallel, Matt stresses that the holy Spirit is the spirit of God the Father" (Brown et al., p.651).
10:22 When Matthew refers to "the end" here, he is most likely referring to the end of that particular individual's life rather than the End of Times.
10:23 It is difficult to decipher how the disciples took the term "before the Son of Man comes." Obviously at this point the death and resurrection had not taken place.
10:25 'Beelzebul' means "prince of demons." As in the last chapter, this is a foreshadowing the charges that will be brought against Jesus.
10:34 'the sword' refers not an "uprising but as a regrettable side effect of tension and division resulting from the uncompromising proclamation of the kingdom" (Brown et al., p.652).
10:38 The first mention of the cross in Matthew, explicitly that of the disciple, but implicitly that of Jesus (and follow after me). During this time period, crucifixion was a form of capital punishment used by the Romans for offenders who were not Roman citizens (Catholic Book Publishing, fn).
10:39 One who denies Jesus in order to save one's earthly life will be condemned to everlasting destruction; loss of eathly life for Jesus' sake will be rewarded by everlasting life in the kingdom.
10:40-42 Those who receive the disciples of Jesus also receive Jesus.
Jennifer Becker Landsberger
Who am I? Freelance writer (magazines, websites, & copywriting), Catholic, military wife, and Mensan. Double Bachelor's in History & Psychology.
Witnessing by charity and love are above all. Studying the Bible and beyond helps me on this quest. Feel free to join my walk into the Bible.
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~~~Prayer before Writing-
Oh creator of the universe, who has set the stars in the heavens and causes the sun to rise and set, shed the light of your wisdom into the darkness of my mind. Fill my thoughts with a loving knowledge of you, that I may bring you like to others. Just as you can make even babies speak your truth, instruct my tongue and guide my pen to convey the wonderful glory of the Gospel. Make my intellect sharp, my memory clear, and my words eloquent, so that I may faithfully interpret the mysteries what you have revealed.
To my readers & fellow writers,
1. I will pray that God's grace helps illuminate all of our interactions- both those of simple reading and more active conversations.
2. I will communicate with you respectfully and civilly. These are (rightly) issues which we feel passionate about. But even in disagreements, I will respect you fellow "seekers of truth."
3. I will not fall into negative behavior or words, such as insinuations, exaggerations, blames, or personal attacks. I respectfully ask you to do the same.
4. I will pray we will all find the truth and strive to fulfill the two greatest commandments: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ The second is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these." (Mark 12:30-31)
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Sites I Recommend
Biblical Evidence for Catholicism by Dave Armstrong