Of note, "the Sumerians created the world's earliest writing system, cuneiform...They invented the whell, the potter's wheel,...and compiled collections of laws. In architecture they developed the arch, dome, and vault" (Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, 2005, p.10). As you can see from these amazing accomplishment (and how early they were), their effect on civilization both in Biblical times and even today cannot be underestimated.
Note: I have not included a map due to copyright reasons, etc. Plus, it's so easy to do a search of your own.
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. (2005). New International Version: Archaeological Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Corporation.