Despite the detail given in the Bible about Exodus, it neglects to give the Pharaoh a name. This is probably because with the oral tradition, there was no way that anyone was going to forget who the Pharaoh defeated at the Sea of Reeds (commonly translated as Red Sea) was!
Archeologists and theologians think that it was one of three Pharaohs: Ramses II, Thutmose III, or Amenhotep II.
The exodus is “guessed” at occurring around 1445 b.c. Ramses II reigned as Pharaoh during 1279-1213 b.c., much too late for the Exodus. However, the first signs of settlement in Israel occur during the early twelfth century, which corresponds to Ramses II’s reign.
Thutmose III was the father of Amenhotep II. Thutmose III’s reign, from 1479-1425 b.c., fits exactly with the guessed date of Exodus. Thutmose III was also known as a fierce warrior. But silence of his military victories later in his reign MAY be due to his defeat at the Sea of Reeds.
Amenhotep II was also a fierce warrior, and received tribute from as far away as Babylon. It was also recorded that at one time during his reign he invaded the area of Canaan. Not much is known about later in Amenhotep. The sudden silence about his military activities has caused many to speculate that this was because his army had been defeated by God in the Sea of Reeds. But this is pure speculation…nothing concrete has been found.
Jennifer Becker Landsberger
Who am I? Freelance writer (magazines, websites, & copywriting), Catholic, military wife, and Mensan. Double Bachelor's in History & Psychology.
Witnessing by charity and love are above all. Studying the Bible and beyond helps me on this quest. Feel free to join my walk into the Bible.
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~~~Prayer before Writing-
Oh creator of the universe, who has set the stars in the heavens and causes the sun to rise and set, shed the light of your wisdom into the darkness of my mind. Fill my thoughts with a loving knowledge of you, that I may bring you like to others. Just as you can make even babies speak your truth, instruct my tongue and guide my pen to convey the wonderful glory of the Gospel. Make my intellect sharp, my memory clear, and my words eloquent, so that I may faithfully interpret the mysteries what you have revealed.
To my readers & fellow writers,
1. I will pray that God's grace helps illuminate all of our interactions- both those of simple reading and more active conversations.
2. I will communicate with you respectfully and civilly. These are (rightly) issues which we feel passionate about. But even in disagreements, I will respect you fellow "seekers of truth."
3. I will not fall into negative behavior or words, such as insinuations, exaggerations, blames, or personal attacks. I respectfully ask you to do the same.
4. I will pray we will all find the truth and strive to fulfill the two greatest commandments: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ The second is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these." (Mark 12:30-31)
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Sites I Recommend
Biblical Evidence for Catholicism by Dave Armstrong